jesse
@ August 15, 2009


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This popped up on Twitter last Tuesday, but didn't come to my attention until yesterday:

Nissan Leaf = 367 mpg, no tailpipe, and no gas required. Oh yeah, and it'll be affordable too!
This message was obviously aimed right at the stomach of Chevy Volt's announcement of a 230 MPG rating from the DOE. Unfortunately it missed, and instead went right into the logic center of my brain, causing it to rattle and spark. This cannot be true, I thought.

Truth begins to reveal itself in the weasel wording of the next message from Nissan, posted about 90 minutes later:

To clarify our previous tweet, the DOE formula estimates 367mpg for Nissan LEAF.
Which begs the question: what is the DOE formula for estimating miles per gallon for an electric vehicle?

If you are thinking you are not interested in reading this, or think its going to be too long or boring, I cannot stress enough how much you should finish this, and how upset you'll be when you are done. Think of this like an M. Night Shyamalan movie: its going to have a twist ending that will leave you confused, angry, and possibly both.

First, let's briefly review my method of evaluating the efficiency of electric vehicles, which I defined as MPGe, or miles per gallon of electrons. A gallon of electrons is the amount of electricity equal to the energy in a gallon of gasoline. For details on the methodology, click here.

The Nissan Leaf boasts a range of 100 miles on an electric charge of 24 kWh. This breaks down to 4.2 miles/kWh, or 150 MPGe (multiply the miles/kWh by 36.6 kWh/gallon, the energy density of gasoline, to get MPGe).

This article from the Society of Automotive Engineers details the methodology taken by the DOE to get to their MPG rating. I had to read it 5 times before I finally understood what was going on, so I won't blame you if you get lost. Let's just go step by step.

STEP ONE: Determine the miles per kWh for the vehicle. We've determined that is 4.2 miles/kWh.

STEP TWO: Convert to gallons using the energy density of gasoline. (Note that so far my methodology is identical). The DOE uses an energy density of 33.7 kWh/gallon instead of 36.6. I don't take it personally. 4.2 miles/kWh x 33.7 kWh/gallon = 141.54 miles per gallon

STEP THREE: The DOE takes into account transmission and production efficiencies, not just usage at the vehicle. I had thought about using this in my evaluation as well, but I decided that I would draw the line at the place of purchase instead of production (as far as I knew, current MPG ratings do not take into account transmission or production energy that goes into making gasoline - we'll get to that in a second). The transmission efficiency used is 96%, and the production efficiency is 32.8%. This is the efficiency of a typical coal plant, and so can vary significantly depending on where you get your electricity, but WHATEV, let's just play along. 141.54 miles per gallon x 96% x 32.8% = 44.6 miles per gallon.

STEP FOUR: Here's where I learned something: CAFE standards actually DO take into account the distribution and production of petroleum. They use an efficiency factor of 83%. Because the electric vehicle does not use any petroleum, the MPG rating gets a boost. 44.6 miles per gallon / 83% = 53.7 miles per gallon.

STEP FIVE: Multiply by 6.67 for no apparent reason. 53.7 miles per gallon x 6.67 = 358 miles per gallon.  Uh... huh? Why?

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy, or CAFE standards, are a set of rules which legislate the average efficiency of a fleet of vehicles made by a given manufacturer. The overview of the rules is here. The relevant passage of the rules is reproduced here for your enjoyment:

The CAFE law provides for special treatment of vehicle fuel economy calculations for dedicated alternative fuel vehicles and dual-fuel vehicles. The fuel economy of a dedicated alternative fuel vehicle is determined by dividing its fuel economy in equivalent miles per gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel by 0.15. Thus a 15 mpg dedicated alternative fuel vehicle would be rated as 100 mpg.
53.7 miles per gallon / 0.15 = 358 miles per gallon!!!!  Just so we are clear, I will repeat that it has absolutely nothing to do with the vehicle's utilization of energy.

I didn't get 367 - the 4.2 miles/kWh I started with was an estimate, not the actual results of DOE's testing - but this is the method used to calculate the fuel efficiency of alternative fuel vehicles. This is not just for electric cars. Flex fuel vehicles that use ethanol use this same fuzzy math when they publish their fuel efficiencies. The lying isn't new, its just getting more noticeable.

Why is this allowed? The justification is that it encourages manufacturers to make non-petroleum vehicles by giving a bonus to their CAFE number. As CAFE standards increase, the manufacturer has the option of either making their vehicles more efficient, or abandoning petroleum as a fuel source.

I can live with that. But now those numbers are being used to deceive the public. People hear 367, or 250, and nobody understands. Nobody knows what it means. Except you, dear reader. You understand.

And also understand this: I am not angry and writing all this because I want electric vehicles to die. Its exactly the opposite: I think electric vehicles are the future. By creating unrealistic expectations for the performance of their vehicles, Nissan, Chevy, and everyone else who publishes this garbage are setting themselves up for failure.

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CAFE stands for Corporate Average Fuel economy. So...if you have a vehicle that has 350mpg that would average out a whole bunch more 25mpg pickup trucks. That means they would have to produce a whole lot fewer electric vehicles to average into the mix. So it seems to me it is a way to allow the manufacturers to make less electric vehicles! If they were credited with 1000mpg they could get away with only making 1/3 as many vehicles.

Interesting, but I don't think that is the way consumers look at this. It isn't really the efficiency equivalence between gasoline and electricity that matters. It eventually will be the energy cost/mile of vehicles. You can write a simple formula for this:
let A= cost/kwh of elec (nat avg = $0.1149/kwh)
let B= cost/gal gas (nat avg 4/10/10 =$2.826/gal reg)
let C= miles/kwh of elect vehicle (Leaf = 4.2m/kwh)
So the equivalent mpg of the electric car on a cost basis is:
MPG equiv = B*C/A
Putting in Leaf and national avg cost of elec and gas would give
Leaf energy cost basis = 103 mpg

p.s. I live in HI and this is probably the worst state for making this comparison. Our electric charge is currently $0.245/kwh and our reg gas cost is about $3.50/gal. If I substitute these in the eq above I get the HI Leaf energy cost basis of ~ 60 mpg

As to why the DOE has multiplied by 6.67 for electric MPGe in their final ruling - "relative scarcity" - it is pure manipulation designed to favor "non scarce" fuels and it looks like even the DOE doesn't agree or approve of this factor but they didn't eliminate it either.

My suspicion is the DOE is being used and manipulated and DOE "leadership" isn't willing to fall on its sword.

Someone "big" has a (misguided?) agenda....Page 4 of the DOE link below explains that this multiplier has been in the ruling for other "flex" fuels and that the DOE doesn't agree with applying it.

They weenied out and avoided a political(?) fight by using 'established precedent' as an excuse for NOT eliminating this multiplier after clearly stating they don't agree with it!

FYI - They are now covered technically but are allowign an agenda to advance. They are "covered"....

Comic interlude on "precedent":

http://www.despair.com/tradition.html

To continue with facts, here is a quote from the DOE:

"Since all of these fuels are
abundant, the concept of ��relative
scarcity�� is difficult to quantify
objectively, and in DOE�s judgement,
should not be an appropriate guiding
factor in the rulemaking at this time."

http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=00-14446-filed.pdf

Is this is more work from the "good intentions paving company" or outright corruption?

Probably a little of both.....

Go go Jenson Button - another richly deserved win for a consistently top league driver - but try to stay out of controversy with Lewis Hamilton in future, that was genuinely scary for a minute there...

We could all gang up on them!

I think some here are missing the point. Sure, WEVE all heard of these movies, and seen most of them. Were Horror Fans (in capitals!) But the average movie renter will look at you with glazed eyes if you mention SISTERS or PEEPING TOM. This is for themkind of like a CARE package.

After such a loss, it sounds about right to me. Being at peace with it is a very good place to be.

well Babel and Cliff and Lee and Whoever.. I do whatever I know.. I am not a martyr.. I want a change and i am happy believing I am doing my bit.. i do not kill myself doing that and I am n ot willing to accept things the way they are.. what i do could be futile and worthless.. but i do it to the best of my ability.. happy making a difference to you all.. I am n ot pretentious, i just dont know the other.. the fact that you waste so much time on PFC trying to prove you are right under a fictitious name, away from your trying to help the world proves you are not just a liar and pretender but also not doing what you want to.. i walk the talk i do.. i dont want to or wish to walk the talk you do.. i seriously hope you Talk the walk that you say you are doin g.. i dont have to prove to you i make films, i do.. you have to prove to me you really do what you say.. prove it.. show me the evidence or fuck off.. you perform surgery in war zones.. bull shit.. i know people who do and they dont get time in months to call familes.. you are on PFC everyday.. you prove your credentials, i will say i am a choot.. or else you are not just the fibbing choot, you are worse

(follow me @Islestylerun on Twitter!)

There seems to be one thought that has been neglected here.Some of the many things that signal the end of a couuntry/nation/civilisation are:-1. Moral standards (biblical) vanish2. Law fails and corruption reigns supreme3. Personal responsibility, honour and integrity becomes scarce and trust goes out the window (who me? paranoid? never!)4. Life revolves around I instead of us

Hey fucknuts, where the fuck did you get the genius idea that I wasnt informed about who did 9/11? Oh thats right, you pulled it out your ass. I suspect its also where you got the idiotic idea that the Nazis were Ashkenazis.why else would you capitalize the last 4 letters of the word? If you still believe that shit promoted by DarylHuffshit, you might as well give up, as you obviously dont have the brains to handle the Jewish Question. You probably believe the the BULLSHIT lie that Hitler was a Jew. Stupid fucker. Ever read Mein Kampf? Oh thats right, you cant read. Silly me.

Descoconozco la causa de no poner el nombre del restaurant de Madrid , porque o nos promocionamos entre nosotros , o no daremos aprendido nunca el sentido gregario que se necesita como Comunidad.Lobby le llaman ahora .Aparte de sobrellevar como se puede el troubleshoting de espúreos , los fines de Mes , a los que tenemos Padres no tan ágiles como Paco R.C. hemos de llevarlos al Banco , al Gadis y en días que coincide , al Ambulatorio , a por las recetas habituales , que hoy además , coincidieron con que el magnífico como Dr y persona , Herrero de Padura que atiende a la Abuela , le dijo que se preocupara un poco de ella misma y la invitó a un chequeo con otra Dra . Esto alrgó el viaje .Como los de antes ante todo son puntuales , para estar a las 09:15 a.m. hay que salir a las 08:30 aunque el trayecto sea de 10 minutos .El proceso llevó hasta mediodía y luego vino lo que nuestro compañero de escritura , llama , estaban esperandome esas pesadas para ir a otro sitio , pasar por el taller a causa de la I.T.V. _vaya negocio_ etc . Hasta ahora mismo , me he estado monitorizando las ansias de conectar , tal es la adicción que tengo a estas alturas , entre otras cosas , porque a las pesadas también se les ocurren cosas buenas para uno siempre y el dar un paseo por El Pedrido con marea baja y 3 personas más y un perro en todo el arenal , a estas horas , pues que es un lujo que sale gratis y hay que aprovechar .Que conste , que esta Playa va unida a mi infancia y a Lugo , gracias a las escursiones de fín de curso en catecismo , que D.Gonzalo Mato Vázquez programaba siempre para todos los de San Antonio de Padua . En la lucidez que le reste , que sepa de la admiración y cariño que se le tendrá siempre en este corazón , pese a quien pese , pues siempre habrá enemigos de los constructores de Catedrales y a él le tocó serlo en una época dura , por ser de cambio .El día antes ya no dormía y el durante , forma parte de mi descubrimiento del Mar , que , vaya a donde vaya y he ido a sitios muy bonitos , siempre será la primera vista;esa que los de Lugo veíamos al llegar a esa zona de Costa de la Ría de Betanzos .Total , que hasta ahora ; enterándome de lo que nos perdimos ayer y leyendo TODO lo de hoy.Pilis si mal no recuerdo espero que sea el mismo que intervino hace varios días . Conociendo la difícil labor que lleva , debería entrar más y explayarse , pues los aires da Costa como denomina una de mis tías , a los de LUGO ( Costa=Monte) son magníficos en medio de la vorágine de la gran ciudad , aunque solo sean cibernéticos .Y A Paco R.C. decirle , que tendría guasa que convirtiera este su Blog en una Democracia , con lo mal que algunas gentes suelen utilizar esa herramienta demoníaca .Este es su Blog y nos debemos a él sin necesidad de que nos pregunte , porque si empieza así , yo me cambio ; aquí entré y entro , por voluntad y criterio propio .Por cierto , fechas de lo de Ribadeo .

Hey fucknuts, where the fuck did you get the genius idea that I wasnt informed about who did 9/11? Oh thats right, you pulled it out your ass. I suspect its also where you got the idiotic idea that the Nazis were Ashkenazis.why else would you capitalize the last 4 letters of the word? If you still believe that shit promoted by DarylHuffshit, you might as well give up, as you obviously dont have the brains to handle the Jewish Question. You probably believe the the BULLSHIT lie that Hitler was a Jew. Stupid fucker. Ever read Mein Kampf? Oh thats right, you cant read. Silly me.

This is a little something I need to do more research into, i appreciate you for the post.

These assholes play like this ALL THE TIME. Why people need someone important on the world stage to confirm what they already know, is simply retarded. I dont give a flying fuck what these pricks say, I know what the score is.

Locar por temporada é sempre bom porque dá pra levar a família toda pelo valor de um quarto de hotel. Tem alguns portals muito bons no brasil sobre isso e um legal é o http://temporadaaluguel.com onde achei muitos imóvel. Eles são bem fortes em Florianópolis, Praia Grande, Guarujá e Cabo Frio.

Em Campos do Jordão tem um monte de imóveis pra alugar na temporada onde é possível pagar bem menos do que em hotéis. Principalmente pra quem viaja com a família. No http://temporadaaluguel.com encontrei alguns bem legais e geralmente os proprietários respondem rápido.

Procurando casa nas férias no brasil encontrei o http://temporadaaluguel.com que é melhor que o alugue temporada. É mais barato e apresenta não só as fotos dos apartamento mas também as fotos do local escolhido.. tipo Ubatuba, Praia Grande, Cabo Frio, etc... Muito bom

Aluguel de Temporada é sempre bom porque dá pra levar a família toda pelo dinheiro de um quarto de pousada. Tem alguns blogs muito bons no brasil sobre isso e um legal é o http://temporadaaluguel.com onde achei muitos apartamento. Eles são bem fortes em Florianópolis, Praia Grande, Guarujá e Cabo Frio.

Procurando casa por temporada no brasil encontrei o http://temporadaaluguel.com que é melhor que o alugue temporada. É mais barato e apresenta não só as fotos dos imóveis mas também as fotos do local escolhido.. tipo Ubatuba, Praia Grande, Cabo Frio, etc... Muito bom

Procurando imóvel nas férias no brasil encontrei o http://temporadaaluguel.com que é melhor que o alugue temporada. É mais barato e apresenta não só as fotos dos apartamento mas também as fotos do local escolhido.. tipo Ubatuba, Praia Grande, Cabo Frio, etc... Muito bom

A note to Informed. Thanks for your suggestion however, the JSO Musicians website contains no contact information beyond that of a webmaster and a contact for something called an Audience Association (I am sorry I dont know what that is). I am glad to know that the radio-thon did very well but in the final analysis I would have preferred to see a number and let me (and others) form opinions as to the degree of success. I wound up listening to quite a bit of it online and the methods used (in the medium of radio) were somewhat unusual in their departure from a traditional way of prompting a radio listener to take action. (such as in a public broadcasting membership campaign) Your second paragraph was most informative and I thank you for sharing that information.

J'ai beaucoup apprécié votre article, et je partage entièrement votre façon de voir. Merci à vous et bonne continuation :)

Im sure a lot of people in 1918 were complaining whyd we buy him hes out of shape! He played for the Red Sox I dont want him!

Those 2 CGs were it for his career. he had an 0.50 ERA after those 2 games, but in career games 3 thru 27 it was 7.80.

In my opinion, I disagree with you, if only because the views of older people are much different than ours, but definitely not worse.

Well said Budd and echoing your sentiments, thanks for posting this story Toni and thanks for writing it Craig. Kudos to both fine ladies also! Run Steady, dave

Las declaraciones del Ministro, que reproduce el Sr. COMPLEJitos en su blog, son un paradigma de corrección política. Por uno lado, reconocemos que la sanción es algo inherente, una faceta más, del sistema educativo, pero después indicamos que no debe tratarse nunca de sanciones pasadas de estilo. Muy bien, Sr. Ministro, y ¿cuál es el estilo correcto?.

There is definately a lot to find out about this issue. I love all the points you made.

Doing an exercise in the wrong way is not usually the cause of failing to stay fit. Flagging motivation and insufficient information are the factors that get in the way for most individuals. The secret to committing to getting fit is finding a way to enjoy your workouts. Failure may be your result if you jump into your attempt without knowing what is required or without the proper support system in place. Check out this article for ways that can help you make exercise exciting and enjoyable.

Tony ,first time poster long time reader of you(Moon is next to my bed since it came out) and your blog .Im glad you got a little taste of Boston .As a former traveler (cant leave Florida anymore) I can attest what a wonderful city it is ! But you must hit the Museums(Isabella Steawart Gardner ,MFA ) and see the Sergent murals in the Public Library next time . And Italian food in the North End after some local beers ! Congrats and Cheers Tony !!!

Based on the terribly stupid title that equates Zen with positive thinking I was prepared to hate the article as just another example of the linguistic abuse of the word zen. However, the article turned out to be just the opposite of the title, so the meaning was saved. Like you say, Zen is the mind being attentive to the mind; without being attached to good and bad, what is your original face? Without trying to avoid hating heat or trying to be happy with heat, turning the awareness of heat around to be aware of the source of awareness itself.

Trainspotting was when a weak Prime Minister was at the helm of UK. A man who can love cricket but run a country??donno.youth gone dopedcountry To the dogs and yeh.when There is heroinwho needs choices

To Gregory I dont think Kristina was equating zen with positive thinking in the literal sense. And, in any case, there is no need for bad language!

forex robot is a technical analysis software and nothing more. it analyses patterns and tells you when and what to buy and sell. Therere lots of agruments about them but had they worked dont you think everybody would be using them and never worked???

For some reason people seem to think a republican cant win in MASS From 1990-2006 MASS had a Republican Governor. Bill Weld 1990-1998, Paul Cellucci 1998-2002, Mitt Romney 2002-2006. Each time a republican won it was VERY close except for 1 time- In 1994 Bill Weld got 70% of the vote in a landslide victory. Could Brown win big? Maybe.

My half marathon time 1hr 39min I am 51 yrs old do i qualify for boston

SO what?.. Even if everything written is true SO what?.. You do nothing about it, you could move country, work to create some social change or any number of things but all you do is sit down and think up on inconsistencies in something that happened 10 years ago. You are all pathetic oxygen thiefs.Go and make something of yourselves instead of just sitting there smugly thinking you are better cause you know the "real" story. If all the injustice here actually upsets you then FUCKING DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT. Pointing and sooking is just sad.

The name of the second guy that did the Stairway to Gilligan sounds like a personal hygiene product.

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Nice collection, thanks!

It has recently been crucial yet just how can i take a note of this kind of?

I dont think many of the new jew aware people still know to what lengths the jews attack non-jews on a daily basis. They are unforgiving and relentless. The lengths they go to, to get inside peoples heads, and then laugh it all off.just sickening.

Me encanta tu sitio, lo he encontrado navegando por bing y la verdad es que me gusta, lo voy a poner en favoritos y ahora mismo lo mando a twitter!!.he puesto en mi pagina web un link a tu pagina web. Mi blog tiene un PR de 5.saludetes!

You should ask you church leaders why they are hiding this from you

Sobre todo con la puesta en marcha de medidas tan imaginativas como la realización de una intervención más en cada quirófano, tal y como planteó su jefe, el presidente Núñez, para solucionar de una vez por todas la lista quirúrgica. ¡Pues sí que era fácil dar con la solución! Pero ya puestos, y siendo ello tan fácil, mejor que una intervención que se hagan dos, y así podrán ofrecer sus servicios a los sistemas sanitarios públicos de otras comunidades, y aún encima cobrar por ello.

Hai fatto non molti punto decente l�. Ho guardato su internet con lo scopo di il rilascio e ha trovato maggior nasce delle uomini andr�

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